Industry 4.0 represents today’s trend in the development of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. This includes cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things (IoT), the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and cloud computing.

Industry 4.0 creates a so-called smart plant. Within this plant, cyberphysical systems control physical processes, creating a virtual copy of the physical world and making an independent, decentralized decision. Through the Internet of Things and cyberphysical systems communicate and align with each other and with people in real time.

Industry 4.0 is a program created at the initiative of the German federal government as a basic platform for research. The main goal is to combine industrial production with modern information and communication equipment.

Industry 4.0 implies such an industry development that will fundamentally change different aspects of people’s lives, such as life, work and rest. Changes can change the labour market, living environment, political system, technology and human identity.



Industrial evolution

The concept of Industry 4.0 does not affect only product production and machine optimization.

The term “smart city” is a phenomenon of recent years that has been very volatile, especially since 2008, when the world was hit by the financial crisis. The main reasons for the emergence of the Smart City initiative are the creation of a sustainable model for cities and the preservation of the quality of life of their citizens. The theme of a smart city cannot be seen only as a technical discipline, but various economic, humanitarian or legal aspects must also be included. In the concept of industry 4.0, the Internet of Things (IoT) will be used for the development of the so-called Smart products. The subcomponents of the product are equipped with their own intelligence. Added intelligence is used both during the production of the product and during after processing, to continuous monitoring of the life cycle of the product (intelligent processes). Other important aspects of industry 4.0 are the Internet of Services (IoS), which includes particularly intelligent transport and logistics (smart mobility, intelligent logistics), as well as the Internet of Energy (IoE), which determines how natural resources are used (electricity, water, oil, etc.). IoT, IoS, IoP and IoE can be seen as an element that can create a link to the Smart City initiative. Industry 4.0 is seen as part of smart cities. It can be expected that the interconnection of these systems will change – the transport processes from the logistics processes of the design to their online optimization in terms of the selected target function and the latest information from the transport infrastructure. Connecting information from the technology industry 4.0 to intelligent city intelligent transport systems could create a very efficient, demand-oriented and higher productivity of manufacturing enterprises, as well as sustainable development of society.